Sopro Technical Guide (8th edition)

The Sopro Technical Guide

Now into its eighth edition, the Sopro Technical Guide has become an indispensable source of information for many designers. After its first appearance in 2001, it soon proved its worth as a versatile reference work and key decision-support tool. Indeed, alongside a wealth of valuable background information, it also offers practical guidance on specific applications.

Section 1 - Reliable, deformation-free laying of various coverings

The correct choice of tile adhesive is governed by various criteria. Key parameters include the nature of the substrate, possible live loads, temperature fluctuations and related movement (expansion and contraction) of the overall structure, and time pressure on site.

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Section 2 - Tile grouts for water and acid exposure, industrial applications and ceramic coverings, paving grouts

The correct choice of tile or paving grout is crucial in ensuring the durability of ceramic, natural stone or other coverings and pavements.

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Section 3 - Composite waterproofing with membrane and tile finish

The building regulations of the German federal states require structures and building elements to be designed and constructed in such a way as to prevent damage or unreasonable nuisance due to water or moisture action.

Provision should therefore be made for suitable waterproofing and damp-proofing measures to protect the building fabric.

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Section 4 - Tiling in swimming pool construction

Swimming pools are heavy-duty constructions featuring a wide variety of geometries and complicated details. The incorporated ceramic coverings, joints and waterproof membranes are permanently exposed to mechanical loads (hydrostatic pressure, high-pressure cleaners etc.) along with weather action, aggressive media (chemical cleaning agents) and, in some cases, brine and thermal water. This makes a carefully co-ordinated design, correct material specification and high-quality workmanship all the more vital to prevent failures in the long term.

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Section 5 - Tiling on refurbishment contracts and to critical substrates

Problematic substrates not readily amenable to trouble-free ceramic floor installation are frequently encountered on refurbishment schemes and even on isolated new-build contracts.

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Section 6 - Reliable laying of natural stone

The immense variety of natural stones now available in Germany embraces well over 6,000 different types from across the globe. Modern cutting and processing techniques have facilitated production of high-precision natural stone units in practically all sizes and thicknesses, and these products are now available at affordable prices.

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Section 7 - Screeds and floor constructions

The design and installation of screeds, where these are incorporated, are governed by the following standards.

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Section 8 - Antistatic ceramic floor coverings

Special measures are required to provide antistatic functionality for floor coverings in areas where mixtures of explosive substances, gases, vapours, fogs, dusts or sensitive measurement equipment are handled or processed.

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Section 9 - Tiling in metalwork and shipbuilding

Structural and stainless steels, in their many different varieties, feature prominently in practically all fields ofbuilding construction and civil engineering – whether in the structural shell (concrete reinforcement, columns, beams etc.), as an architectural feature (elaborate stairways) or in building services systems (lift installations etc.). Indeed, many modern-day structures would be impossible to erect without steel.

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Section 10 - Grouting of voids in tile beds and screeds

Failures traceable to voids and hollows below ceramic/ natural stone coverings and screeds are anything but a rare occurrence in everyday practice. The necessary remedial works, which frequently amount to wholesale refurbishment, with accordingly high costs, disruption and downtimes, place an enormous burden on clients and contractors.

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Section 11 - Levelling of substrates

The pretreatment of substrates is necessary to ensure the optimum bonding of levelling compounds. Special primers are available for preparing both absorbent and nonabsorbent substrates.

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Section 12 - Fast-track systems

The increasing rationalization of construction programmes, which is aimed at minimizing unproductive time on site and ensuring that scheduled opening dates are met, imposes ever tighter deadlines on today's applicators.

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Section 13 - Pavements in public and private areas

The use of segmental units (setts, pavers and flags) to pave roads, paths and squares is one of the oldest forms of construction. Today, this method is employed for both vehicular and pedestrian areas in the public realm and hard landscaping in private gardens.

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Section 14 - Basement waterproofing, based on DIN 18 195 – DIN 18 533

Reliable protection of the building fabric against water and moisture infiltration not only safeguards living quality, but also constitutes a statutory requirement enshrined in the German federal state building regulations.

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Section 15 - Concrete repair

The particular properties and reliable performance of concrete have established it as an indispensable material in all fields of construction.

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